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已有 252 次阅读2017-2-9 23:18 |个人分类:离子共价论|系统分类:科研心得| Ionocovalency, Universe

Universe is Created by Ionocovalency

Yonghe Zhang

  Macroscopicuniverse originates from micro and macro inevitability belongs to themicrocosmic probability. Universe is createdby ionocovalency (IC), which is the harmony of the ionic kinetic Z* energywith the covalent environment r.

IC = Z*/r

  The Ionic energy are the intention, thepossessive and the expressive instinct originated from theionization of the nuclear charge Z*.The covalent environment is the boundary condition and the naturelaws of kinetic-potential energy conversion and conservation, originatedfrom the Bohr radii r.

The universehas six natures: matter, motion, discrete, continuity, harmony, andcirculation. And their six corresponding entities are nucleus, kinetic energy,particle, wave, potential energy and orbital, respectively. And the later isgenerated from the former. So the matter generates nucleus, the motiongenerates kinetic energy, the discrete generates particle, the continuitygenerates wave, the harmony generates the potential and the circulationgenerates orbital. Kinetic Energy, Discrete and Particle correlate Ionicity I(IzZ*n*); Continuity and Wavecorrelate CovalencyC(rc-1, n*rc-1)Harmony and Potential Energy correlate Ionocovalency IC; Circulation and Orbitalcorrelate effective principle quantum number n*. In light of these considerations, a universe nature mechanismis proposed:


   Matter → Motion → Discrete → Continuity → Harmony →  Circulation

  \    ∕                 ∕                  ∕                ∕         \      ∕           

  Nucleus — Kinetic energy — Particle  —  Wave  —  Potential energy — Orbital

—————  ——————————— —————   ———————       ————

Atomic bound         Ionicity                  Covalency    Ionocovalency      

                                       I (Iz, Z*, n*)            C (rc-1, n*rc-1)           IC                        n*


Chart1. The Universe Nature Mechanism and Ionocovalency





Inaccordance with Einstein's relativistic mechanics, the mass m of the object andits velocity v has the followingrelationship:


                               m = m0 /(1-(v/c)2)½                                                                   (1)


where c is the speed of light, m0 is the rest mass, the laws of motion:


                           F =d(mv)/dt =ma + vdm/dt                                                              (2)


the speed of macroscopicobjects is too small than the speed of light, then m = m0, F = ma.

Therefore,when Discrete is in disharmony with Continuity, the universe lead to the macro,the Basic Law of the universe is in accordance with the classical mechanics of Newton's second law:


                                  F = ma.                                                                              (3)


When theDiscrete is in harmony with Continuity, the universe is resulted in themicroscopic and the rules are consistent with the wave mechanics. The macroscopiclaw is only a special case (v << c)of the microscopic. The macroscopic necessity obeys themicroscopic probability, and the Schrödinger Wave Equation has the universal significance:


                           -h22ψ/8π2m- Ze2ψ/r4πє0= Eψ                                                           (4)

wherethe potential energy Ze2/r that is formed in harmony of the ionicattraction Ze2, betweenthe nucleus and the electron, with the localization of covalent radius rc isionocovalency  


                                Ze2/r =I(Z*)C(rc-1)                                                                       (5)

where I is ionic function of the effective nuclear charge Z*Cis covalent function of the covalent radium rc. Based on the Bohr energy model:


                          E = - Z2me4/8n2h2ɛ0= - RZ2/n2                                                                       (6)


we havederived the Zhang effective nuclear charge


Z*=n*(Iz /R)½                                                                                         (7)


Substituting Eq.(7) into (5), we can naturally correlate the ionocovalency to thequantum-potential      

and getthe IC model:


I(Iz )C(n*rc-1)= n*( Iz /R)½ rc-                                                                            (8)

Since the total energy E remains constant, the solutionsof the SchrödingerWave Equation must be a higher kinetic energy in systems if where the potentialenergy is lower, and vice versa. The loss in kinetic energy iscompensated for by an increase in the electron’s potential energy. The universe system can followthe ionocovalent potential as the sequence.



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